Bolivia has been occupied for about 20,000 years. The ruins of Tiwanaku, near Lake Titicaca in the north are evidence of an artistically and culturally advanced civilization with no written language. The city was founded around 200 BCE, and collapsed around 1100.
The area was absorbed into the Inca empire around 1440. The Spanish arrived in 1535 and turned everybody into slaves. Sixteen years of terrible fighting started in 1809, and ended with the establishment of the Republic of Bolivia in 1825.
The country was named after the famous freedom-fighter Simon Bolivar. In the years since then, Boliva has survived through more than 16 constitutions and 160 revolutions.
Bolivia on Wikipedia