Lesotho is a land-locked country completely contained within South Africa that achieved independence in 1966.
The first elections were held in 1970, but when the ruling Basotho National Party lost, they refused to step down and instead imprisoned the winners, resulting in over 30 years of rebellions, coups, and demonstrations. The first peaceful elections were held in 2002.
Besides being an enclave (a country within a country), Lesotho is geographically notable as the only country in the world that lies entirely above 1,000 metres in elevation. Its lowest point is 1,400 m, and over 80% of the country lies above 1,800 m.
Lesotho on Wikipedia