- Polish state founded c. 966
- Kingdom of Poland formed in 1025
- Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth founded in 1569
- Commonwealth collapses in 1795, Poland divided between Prussia, the Russian Empire, and Austria
- Independence regained in 1918 (Second Polish Republic)
- Occupied by Nazi Germany and Soviet Union during World War II, Poland loses over six million citizens
- People's Republic of Poland emerges after WWII
- Communist rule overthrown during 1989 revolution, Third Polish Republic begins.