Founded by the Magyars in the 9th century, the ancient kingdom of Hungary stretched to the Baltic, Black, and Mediterranean Seas by the 14th century. By the 15th century Hungary was an important artistic and cultural centre in the European Renaissance.
Hungary lost its independence to the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century, and in 1867 achieved autonomy as part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1989, Hungary would become the Republic of Hungary.
Today the culture of Hungary is diverse and varied. A list of Hungarian inventions includes holography, the match, the theory of the hydrogen bomb, the ballpoint pen, Rubik's Cube, BASIC, and non-Euclidean geometry.