Congo, Democratic Republic
The Democratic Republic of the Congo -- not to be confused with the Republic of the Congo, a different and much smaller country to the west -- was formerly known as the Republic of Zaire and before that the Belgian Congo. If that's not confusing enough, the country was at one time known as the Republic of the Congo. Yes, that's the same name as the other smaller Congo to the west.
Belgium granted the country independence as the Republic of the Congo following extremely violent riots in 1959. The name was changed to Zaire in 1971, and changed yet again to DR Congo after a civil war in 1997.